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Women who fly : aerialists in modernity (1880-1930)
    Auteurs : Gils, Bieke [Auteur]
    Éditeur : University of British Columbia
    Lieu de publication : Vancouver
    Date de publication : 2013
    Langue : Anglais
    Description : x, 191 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
    Notes : Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of philosophy in the faculty of graduate and postdoctoral studies (kinesiology). Bibliogr. : p. 174-191
    Sujets:
    Histoire de l'acrobatie aérienne
    Femmes artistes de cirque
    Histoire des arts du cirque - 19e siècle
    Histoire des arts du cirque - 20e siècle
    Histoire des arts du cirque - France
    Histoire des arts du cirque - États-Unis
    Études sur le genre
    Travestisme
    Représentation du corps circassien
    Foires
    Arts du cirque - Philosophie et théorie
    Charmion [artiste de cirque]
    Barbette [artiste de cirque]
    Coleman, Bessie [aviatrice]
    Trapèze - Histoire
    Image de la femme dans les arts du cirque
    Artistes de cirque afro-américains
    Femmes - Identité
    Identité culturelle
    Artistes de cirque - Biographie
    Trapeze Disrobing Act [oeuvre cinématographique]
    Cirque au cinéma
    Spectacle d'aviation - Histoire



    Résumé:
    Around 1900, Charmion (alias Laverie Vallée) introduced a provocative 'trapeze disrobing act,' combined with feats of strength to her audiences in vaudeville theaters in New York. She was one of a wave of female aerialists whose performances quite literally 'flew' in the face of Victorian values. Trapeze artists in circuses and in vaudeville theaters, as well as stunt flying aviators showcasing their courage and abilities during local fairs or aerial exhibitions from the 1910s on, indeed pushed the boundaries of what was deemed possible in terms of the human body's physical capacities while challenging traditional notions of gender, race, class, and sexuality through their unconventional performances. In this study I explore three cases of aerialists who navigated both the demands of managers/spectators for spectacular and titillating acts and their personal aspirations within the confines of the increasingly capitalist entertainment industries in the West between 1880 and 1930. Besides Charmion, my study takes shape around the performances of "Barbette" or Vander Clyde who took Parisian theaters by storm with an amalgamation of trapeze artistry and female impersonation in interwar France; and Bessie Coleman, the first African American woman to gain a pilot license and to set up her own flying shows throughout the United States in the 1920s. For each case study I conducted exhaustive archival searches and analysed relevant newspaper articles, magazines, show reviews, photographs and silent film. I draw on Mikhail Bakhtin's concepts of the carnivalesque and the grotesque, and on Victor Turner's concept of liminality to illustrate how aerial performances between 1880 and 1930 functioned as sites of creative resistance, opening up possibilities for a rethinking and redefinition of social categories of gender, race, class, and sexuality. I show how the performances of Charmion, Coleman and Barbette simultaneously reflected and challenged the anxieties and optimism of a society forced to revisit traditional beliefs regarding the gendered/racialized/classed/sexualized body. In demonstrating how these performers helped question modernizing beliefs regarding the human body's capacities, and the female body's physical abilities and appearance in particular, I argue they suggested new types of embodied agency for both women and men at the time. [editor summary]

    Dépouillement du document :
    I: WOMEN WHO FLY
    Destabilizing Categories
    Contextualizing the Case Studies
    Thesis Structure

    II: FRAMING AND TRACING THE AERIAL BODY
    Framing
    Introducing Bakhtin
    Carnival and the Carnivalesque
    The Grotesque Body
    Bakhtin and the Omission of Women's Voices
    Victor Turner and Liminality
    Bakhtin, Turner, and Agency
    Tracing
    Reconstructing the Aerial Body
    Biographical Case Studies
    Sources/Traces
    Searching for Charmion, Barbette, and Bessie Coleman
    Searching for Charmion
    Bringing Barbette to Light/Life
    Commemorating Coleman

    III: FLYING, FLIRTING AND FLEXING: CHARMION'S TRAPEZE ACT, SEXUALITY, AND PHYSICAL
    Culture at the Turn of the Twentieth Century
    From Unabashed Burlesque to Respectable Vaudeville
    Charmion the Parisian Sensation
    A Woman with the Muscles of Sandow
    To View and Be Viewed
    Swinging Between Freedom and Constraint

    IV: LE NUMÉRO BARBETTE: DESTABILIZING GENDER ON THE HIGH WIRE, THE RINGS AND THE FLYING TRAPEZE
    Barbette Beginnings
    Paris Was the Experience...
    Des Gens Ne Voient Dans les Spectacles Que Ce Qu'ils Sont
    Their Love-life is Even Sadder...
    Une Eve Future
    Un Hommage à La Femme
    Life after 1938

    V: BESSIE COLEMAN: "THE ONLY RACE AVIATRIX IN THE WORLD"
    The Winged Gospel's Female Missionaries
    Dreams of Flight
    On a Mission to France
    Missionary, Entrepreneur, Entertainer
    The Sky is the Limit for Queen Bess


    VI: CONCLUSION

    Contributions
    Future Research

    Collection / Fonds : BIbliothèque de l'École nationale de cirque
    Localisation : Bibliothèque
    Cote : 791.340 82 G4895w 2013

    Type de publication : Publication scientifique

    Disponibilité : Accessible en ligne

    • Ex.1 - disponible
       
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